Accessibility Tools

Skip to main content

Articles

Adult Lyme Disease

Adult Lyme disease cases have reached epidemic proportions in the last decade due to a variety of factors including climate change allowing for continued tick replication throughout the year, urban housing development in rural areas where deer inhabit and are known tick vectors, and an increase in the deer population.  Most importantly, the development of appropriate scientific tools such as tests, are needed to document the presence and exposure to Borrelia in blood and urine, which are...

Alkalizing Foods

The alkaline diet is based on the idea that replacing acid-forming foods with alkalizing foods can improve your health. The body fluids of healthy individuals are naturally alkaline meaning they have a high pH, whereas the body fluids of the chronically ill tend to be more acidic with a low pH. Most degenerative diseases attributed to aging, cancer, osteoporosis, and heart disease have all been scientifically linked to calcium and other mineral deficiencies that result in the body fluids...

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease that may have genetic (APOE4) and environmental influences on its manifestation in 60-70% of cases. The loss of cognitive function generally starts slowly and progressively gets worse with time and age.  The disease is characterized by the development of amyloid plaques in the brain, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal degradation in the brain.  It affects about 6% of people over 65 years of age and is expected to increase substan...

Andropause

Andropause is the natural male equivalent of menopause, characterized by a declining state in DHEA and testosterone levels, beginning as early as age 30. When a man has chronic Lyme Disease, persistent inflammation and infection cause significant dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which ultimately leads to the decreased production of the androgen steroid hormones. Symptoms of low DHEA: Decreased energy Decreased libido Decreased muscle strength Depression Difficulty deali...

Anti-Inflammatory Diet

Inflammation is the body's normal response to infections, diseases, injuries, and anything it considers harmful.  It is important to lower inflammation during treatment because this will help fight against toxic compounds, pathogens, and damaged cells build up in organ tissues. Certain foods are known to cause inflammation in the body. One of the fastest ways to decrease inflammation is to adopt an anti-inflammatory diet. Fruits and vegetables are particularly important in the defe...

Autoimmune Disease

Frequently we see autoimmune diseases associated with Lyme Disease and coinfections such as Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Scleroderma, Graves Disease, Celiac Disease, etc. Essentially any tissue in the body can fall prey to autoimmune disease if the autoimmunity is driven by infection.When pathogenic infections invade tissues, the bacteria produce LPS (lipopolysaccharides) which are found on their outer cell membrane and promote inflammation. These molecules are produced...

Autoimmune Disease

Frequently we see autoimmune diseases associated with Lyme Disease and coinfections such as Multiple Sclerosis, Lupus, Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Scleroderma, Graves Disease, Celiac Disease, etc. Essentially any tissue in the body can fall prey to autoimmune disease if the autoimmunity is driven by infection.When pathogenic infections invade tissues, the bacteria produce LPS (lipopolysaccharides) which are found on their outer cell membrane and promote inflammation. These molecules are produced...

Babesiosis

Babesiosis, often a co-infection of Lyme Disease in humans, was first identified by Victor Babes in the late 19th century in Romanian cattle and the disease at that time was coined “Red Water Fever.”  However, Babesia infection in humans was not confirmed until 1956 in a Yugoslavian farmer. Babesia is a protozoan intracellular red blood cell parasite quite similar to malaria and is a worldwide emerging zoonotic disease.  There are about 100 known species of Babesia t...

Bartonella and Scleroderma

Scleroderma and Bartonella… Is there a connection? Dr. Marra has been treating patients with tick borne illness since 1999 in both Westport Connecticut and Seattle Washington. She has had two patients with severe Raynaud’s Syndrome, a Scleroderma diagnosis, and a positive Bartonella henselae serology test, one from each coast. Dr. Marra does not think that this is a coincidence as Bartonella is known to reside in the vascular system along the inside of the vessel endothelium. She strongly s...

Bartonella Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic Syndrome is a collage of risk factors that are associated with an increased risk of stroke, type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and peripheral artery disease. About 30 million Americans suffer from the following symptoms: Central abdominal obesity Fasting glucose of greater than 100mg/dL BP greater than 130/85 Low HDL Fasting triglycerides greater than 150mg/dL Risk factors for developing Metabolic Syndrome include: Increased abdominal girth I...

Bartonella or "cat scratch fever"

What is Bartonella? Bartonella, also known as “Cat Scratch Fever”, is an emerging bacterial zoonotic disease found all over the world.  They are blood-loving, oxygen-avoidant bacteria that are typically transmitted by biting insects such as fleas, sand flies, mosquitoes, and ticks, or cat scratches. Prevalence There are over 20 known species of pathogenic Bartonella including B. henselae, B. quintana, etc. Four of them have been isolated in cats, which is why it is called “C...

Bioidentical Hormone Treatment

BHRT, or bioidentical hormone treatment, is a method of balancing hormones that are naturally based using yams, soy, or peanut oil.  It IS NOT the use of synthetic hormones.  For women and men, it is essential to maintain a healthy balance of hormones throughout life, as the estrogens (estrone, estradiol, and estriol), progesterone, DHEA, pregnenolone, and testosterone all play a significant role in maintaining health in differing doses and combinations at differing times in life. T...

Biotoxin Illness & Your Environment

Biotoxin illness is an invisible disease that results from exposure to toxins such as mycotoxins including ochratoxin, aflatoxin, trichothecene, and gliotoxin among others, or toxins from microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and molds. Inflammagens such as endotoxins, mannans, proteinases, and even EMFs initiate a vicious cycle of inflammation called “chronic inflammatory response syndrome” coined by Dr. Shoemaker. Chronic inflammation is the result of the immune system's desperat...

Brucellosis

Brucellosis is a zoonotic and tick-borne disease caused by the bacteria Brucella melitensis, and is an ancient disease, dating back to the 5th plague of Egypt around 1600 BC.  Archeological excavation of Egyptian human bones dating around 750 BC demonstrated evidence of osteoarticular abnormalities that are often symptom complications from a Brucellosis infection.  Brucella is found all over the world, especially in countries that rely heavily on agriculture, livestock, an...

Cannabis for Lyme Symptoms

If you are having trouble managing the symptoms of Lyme disease or other co-infections, medical cannabis may be a treatment option for you. The anti-inflammatory properties of medical cannabis have been linked to providing potential relief for some of the symptoms of Lyme disease, as well as numerous mental benefits including some relief from anxiety and depression. The pain-relieving properties of medical marijuana make it a viable treatment for Lyme disease. Cannabis is a naturall...

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a late 20th-century buzzword used to convey a constellation of symptoms that patients experience, but it is a not formal diagnosis. Extreme exhaustion, poor stamina coupled with difficulty concentrating, and poor memory render patients nearly completely disabled.  Additionally, CFS may be accompanied by flu-like symptoms, joint and muscle aches, unrefreshing sleep, tender lymph nodes, sore throat, and headache. This constellation of symptoms is sim...

Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) was coined in 2003 by Dr. Richard Shoemaker in Pocomoke, Maryland when he began seeing a multitude of patients with mold toxicity from water-damaged buildings. However, CIRS is also found in ciguatera and cyanobacteria exposure, post Lyme syndrome, recluse spider bites, traumatic brain injury, and chronic fatigue syndrome. CIRS is technically defined as “a chronic illness acquired following exposure to the interior environment of a water-da...

Complex Chronic Illness & Environmental Illnesses

Complex Chronic Illness and the “Ologist” Shuffle Complex chronic illness is a constellation of symptoms that arise in a patient over time, and which occur as the result of a variety of different reasons. Traditional medicine has notoriously failed these kinds of patients because it lacks a holistic perspective. Patients find themselves on what we call the “ologist” shuffle going from Cardiologist to Gastroenterologist, to Neurologist, to Rheumatologist, but the various symptoms remain ex...

Dental Issues and Tick-borne Illness

Many patients with tick-borne illness will experience dental issues including cavities, jawbone erosion, enamel weakening, gingivitis, periodontitis, and teeth movement. Borrelia and Bartonella are probably the root cause for these dental changes, as these organisms can penetrate the bone and mucosa and establish biofilm colonies. The organisms cause localized inflammation and tissue destruction over time to such an extent, that dental problems occur. Clearly, there are genetic influences on ...

Detoxification

Detoxification is a natural property of the human body and includes urination, defecation, sweating, and breathing. Food and liquids that we eat and drink respectively contain many components for which the body cannot use and are therefore eliminated as waste. This is a homeostatic component of our physiology that allows “balance” to be maintained in the body. The liver, kidneys, colon, and lungs are the organs responsible for carrying out detox activity in the body. However, the liver bears...

Dyslipidemia and Lyme Disease

Dyslipidemia is abnormal lipid metabolism. Patients who have had or have Lyme Disease often have significant abnormalities in their lipid metabolism.  This results from chronic inflammation and prolonged activation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha).  Elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, and LDL are commonly seen, while HDL (the good cholesterol) is decreased.  Dr. Jones and I believe that these elevations in c...

Dyslipidemia and Lyme Disease

Dyslipidemia is abnormal lipid metabolism. Patients who have had or have Lyme Disease often have significant abnormalities in their lipid metabolism.  This results from chronic inflammation and prolonged activation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha).  Elevated cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL, and LDL are commonly seen, while HDL (the good cholesterol) is decreased.  Dr. Jones and I believe that these elevations in c...

Ehrlichia and Anaplasma

Ehrlichia chafeensis (HME), Ehrlichia ewengii and Anaplasma phagocytophilum(HGE), are emerging zoonotic diseases, especially in areas where human urban living encroaches on endemic tick areas.  These bacteria are largely found in mammals residing in the southeastern, south-central, and mid-Atlantic areas of the United States, and according to the CDC, most cases are reported in the states of Maryland, Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Tennessee.  Ehrlichia&n...

EMF Sensitivity in Environmental Medicine

EMF (Electromagnetic) sensitivity is increasing as 5G rolls out and new cell towers are being built to accommodate the shift in EMFs.  Humans generate their own magnetic field at a much lower strength than what we find in our environment with satellites, cell phones, laptops, microwaves, electronic appliances, electric cars, etc…There are non-thermal (heat) effects on our tissues, organs, and cells. Dr. Thomas Rau at the Paracelsus clinic in Lustmühle, Switzerland demonstrated that cult...

End Lyme Video

Ending Lyme: How Revolutionary Biomolecular Research is the Key to Unraveling Lyme Disease

Environmental Medicine and Epigenomics

Environmental medicine refers to discovering and treating a myriad of environmental insults including infections, mold, mycotoxins, toxic foods, EMF, chemical poisoning, etc… that may cause symptoms. Each of these environmental insults can cause significant alterations in individual genetic expression. In other words, you are born with genetic potential, but disease-causing genes may only be turned “on” in response to exposure to significant environmental stressors. These stressors alter the ...

Fungal Infections

Fungal Infections As Co-infections or Secondary Infections in Lyme Disease Patients Who Are Immunocompromised As of 2018, recent research by Fry Laboratories in Scottsdale, Arizona, suggests that, at least in some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and arthritis, the fungus may be the actual problem. This should come as no surprise because fungi, bacteria, and viruses have been coevolving on Earth and in hosts for millions and millions of years. Fungi are found throughout the environment...

Gestational Lyme Disease

Unfortunately, there is great debate within the medical community regarding the existence and prevalence of the transmission of Lyme disease, co-infections, and parasites to the unborn fetus.The medical community already recognizes that certain infections cross the placental barrier and they are known as “TORCH Syndrome” infections which include: Toxoplasmosis, Other (i.e., Syphilis), Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex Virus. These infections become of great concern to the physician...

Healing Affirmations

Healing Affirmations are an incredibly powerful tool in the healing journey. One of the things that are so disheartening about chronic illness is that your spirit can become sick and depressed as well.  This complicates the healing journey substantially.  One way to keep your spirits high while you heal from chronic illness is to do daily affirmations that actually help you heal.  Below are affirmations that you can do or write in your journal to keep your spirits high: I ...

Herxheimer Reaction

The Herxheimer reaction (HERX) was originally noted in 1895 by Dr. Jarisch who worked with Syphyllis (a spirochete) patients.  In the 21st century, we observe Herxheimer reactions in tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme Disease, also caused by a spirochete.  A Herxheimer reaction (Herx) typically occurs hours to days after antimicrobial administration and is thought to be the result of endotoxins released into the bloodstream by dying spirochetes.  The body’s immune system then re...

Herxheimer Reaction

The Herxheimer reaction (HERX) was originally noted in 1895 by Dr. Jarisch who worked with Syphyllis (a spirochete) patients.  In the 21st century, we observe Herxheimer reactions in tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme Disease, also caused by a spirochete.  A Herxheimer reaction (Herx) typically occurs hours to days after antimicrobial administration and is thought to be the result of endotoxins released into the bloodstream by dying spirochetes.  The body’s immune system then re...

Herxheimer Reaction (HERX)

The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction was originally noted in 1895 by Dr. Jarisch who worked with Syphyllis (a spirochete) patients.  In the 21st century, we observe Herxheimer reactions in tick-borne illnesses such as Lyme Disease, also caused by a spirochete.  A Herxheimer reaction (Herx) typically occurs hours to days after antimicrobial administration and is thought to be the result of endotoxins released into the bloodstream by dying spirochetes.  The body’s immune system then r...

Hormones

Hormones – Pituitary Insufficiency The hypothalamus and pituitary are small organs in the brain that are largely responsible for the regulation of most neuroendocrine functions throughout the body. They interact with each other as well as end organs such as the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the ovaries, testes, etc…via precise feedback systems which regulate hormone secretion. Hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency is common in tick-borne disease manifesting as, hypothyroidism, adrenal e...

Immune Dysregulation

One of the things that happens in chronic tick-borne illness (TBD) is immune dysregulation in both T cells and B cells.  T cells mature in the thymus gland and are a form of white blood cell.  T cell differentiation occurs in the thymus gland allowing for CD4 (T helper), CD8 (T suppressor), and CD57 cells to proliferate.  These are the T cells that are most affected by TBD.  The CD57 cells are the natural killer (NK) cells, and they act like, “scavengers” of anything that ...

Leaky Brain

The brain is encased in a membrane called, the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which helps keep certain molecules and toxins from affecting the brain. However, chronic infection and inflammation increase the semi-permeable membranes flood gates, so that unwanted molecules can enter the brain leading to a leaky brain. A leaky brain blood-brain barrier allows toxins such as acetaldehyde, ammonia, mycotoxins, etc… to accumulate in the brain tissue. Symptoms include: anxiety depres...

Leaky Gut

Leaky gut is a condition common in the American culture because of the food choices we make.  Digestive issues, food sensitivities, sugar cravings, weight gain, brain fog, mood swings, fatigue, headaches, skin issues, yeast infections, bloating, constipation, and urinary tract infections can all result from a leaky gut. Typically, it is characterized by a damaged intestinal mucosa lining, such that the tight junctions (small spaces between cells) become "open" and allow toxins to cross t...

Let’s Talk Hormones

The hypothalamus and pituitary are small organs in the brain that are largely responsible for the regulation of most neuroendocrine functions throughout the body which regulate hormones. They interact with each other as well as end organs such as the thyroid gland, the adrenal glands, the ovaries, testes, etc…via precise feedback systems which regulate hormone secretion. Hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency is common in tick-borne diseases manifesting as, hypothyroidism, adrenal exhaustion, ...

Lipopolysaccharides and Endotoxins

Lipopolysaccharides are large molecules composed of sugars and fats which are endotoxins found within a bacterial cell. LPS is secreted as part of the normal physiological activity of membrane vesicle trafficking and protects the membrane from certain chemical attacks. LPS activates the hosts’ immune response by stimulating white blood cells (i.e., neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells) to secrete certain enzymes that deactivate them. Additionally, these WBC’s secrete proinflammatory cyto...

Louse-Borne Relapsing Fever

Louse-borne relapsing fever (LBRF) is caused by the spirochete, Borrelia recurrentis, and is largely transmitted from person to person by lice. This bacteria is unique because it can alter the proteins expressed on its surface which causes the “relapsing” characteristic symptoms. It initially infects the mucus membranes and then moves into the bloodstream. Symptoms can include: 1) Fever2) Malaise3) Fatigue4) Cognitive Dysfunction5) Prolonged QT interval on EKG6) Jaundice Generally, this is...

Lyme Disease Video

Ending Lyme: How Revolutionary Biomolecular Research is the Key to Unraveling Lyme Disease https://youtu.be/HF6YiZ9ZKjk

Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

Mast cells are specialized immune system cells found in nearly all tissue types of the body. They are part of the allergic immune response and release chemical messengers such as histamine, interleukins, prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines. These chemical messengers and histamine, in particular, produce both local and systemic inflammation and swelling, increased mucous production, and secretion (runny nose, itchy eyes, congestion), and can also cause heart palpitations. Additionally,...

Menopause & Lyme Disease

Women who have had or have Lyme Disease often have a difficult time during Menopause.  They may experience a “flare” in their symptoms due to the declining levels of estradiol and progesterone primarily, but also thyroid hormone, cortisol, DHEA, pregnenolone, testosterone, and growth hormone.  Weight gain around the midsection is common for women in perimenopause and menopausal states and can become even more of a problem when Lyme Disease is present due to metabolic dysequilibrium....

Methylene Blue

Methylene Blue is an old drug (circa 1876) used to treat methemoglobinemia and cyanide poisoning.  It is a thiazide dye and turns your urine blue, but generally is very well tolerated. Some patients like to use red spectrum light with methylene blue, especially for treating plaque psoriasis. It works by converting ferric iron in hemoglobin to ferrous iron.  It also has anti-inflammatory properties and is currently under research investigation for the treatment of persistent Bartone...

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) was first described by Jean-Martin Charcot in 1868 and is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which the myelin sheath (composed of fats) around nerve axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged. Chronic inflammation leads to widespread demyelination, especially in the white matter areas of the brain where there is a high density of fatty acids. MS affects the ability of nerve cells to communicate with each other because the body’s immune system attacks and damages...

Mycotoxin & Mold Remediation

For those who are concerned about your home or work environment having mold, please see below for a list of companies that will work with you to provide an analysis of your environment.  Mycometrics Lab Analysis Environmental Analytics Safe Start Environmental

Mycotoxins and Mold Exposure

Mycotoxins and mold are metabolites of fungal organisms that are toxic to the human body and exposure can be present in both food and air. Two food-borne mycotoxins are Aflatoxin and Ochratoxin. Aflatoxin is produced by many species of Aspergillus fungi and can be found in soil, peanut butter, olive oil, and some cosmetics. Ochratoxin is also produced by Aspergillus species and can be found in cereal, coffee, and wine. It too has disease-causing effects on the body and has a half-life of 35 d...

Natural Killer Cells

Natural killer cells (CD57 cells) were first noted by a Swedish researcher, Rolf Kiessling in the 1970s, and are a type of T cell, representing a significant component of the innate immune system. CD57 cells do not produce antibodies against a foreign pathogen, but rather,  are activated by chemical messenger molecules derived from macrophages including interleukin- 2, 12, 15, and 18, and interferon.  Natural killer cells circulate in the blood and possess cytotoxic properties wher...

Neurological Manifestations of Tick-Borne Illness

There are many neurological manifestations of tick-borne illness. Spirochetes, the bacteria that cause Lyme Disease, have a particular affinity for the brain because they feed on the fats located in the myelin sheath, as well as sugars. These substances are found in abundance in brain tissue, and therefore, it should come as no surprise, that spirochetes take up long-term residence in the brain. Spirochetes often live within the myelin sheath which cloaks neurons in the brain. Many patients ...

Oxidative Stress and Mycotoxins

Mycotoxins can cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is an intracellular imbalance that occurs in chronic disease where reactive oxygen species are not readily removed and detoxified into more inert compounds in the body. This results in cellular dysfunction leading to disease. The production of free radicals and peroxides are chemicals that cause intracellular organelle damage and prevent normal cellular function. Mycotoxin exposure significantly increases oxidative stress and therefore r...

PANDAS and Lyme Disease

Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is a term used to describe pediatric patients who exhibit a myriad of movement and psychiatric symptoms related to exposure to a strep infection. Interestingly, these patients' symptoms often become worse at times during the school year when strep infection in the classroom is rampant, often during the winter months. Symptoms of PANDAS include Sydenham Chorea movements, Motor Tics, Anxiety, Senso...

Pediatric & Adolescent Lyme Disease

Tick-borne diseases are a 21st-century epidemic in most geographical areas of the United States and Europe, China, Japan, Australia, South America, and Africa.  Greater awareness regarding the spread of these diseases is gaining momentum as we enter the “Decade of the Microbe.”  However, the multidimensional impact of Lyme disease in particular on our most vulnerable population, children, is still under substantial scrutiny by the medical establishment despite numerous scientific ar...

Peptide Therapy

Peptide therapy is an old treatment therapy used in Russia and Europe for a variety of different ailments and has risen to popularity largely because they are naturally occurring and have few side effects. Peptides are a string of amino acids, the building blocks of life, form proteins, enzymes, and hormones, engage in cellular transport, and function as the "scaffolding" that holds the structural foundation of our biochemistry and physiology.  They are the master regulators and signali...

Q Fever

Q Fever is a vector-borne disease caused by the bacteria, Coxiella burnetii, and is found in cattle, sheep, goats, cats, and dogs.  Humans can get infected by inhaling endospores, ingesting the milk, urine, or feces of an infected animal, or from a tick bite. Patients with Q Fever generally develop fever, chills, fatigue, and muscle pain.  If not treated properly, the infection can become chronic and require long-term antibiotic treatment, including doxycycline and Plaquenil. It i...

Recommendations for Infected Patients with Tick-Borne Disease

DO NOT donate blood.  You have been infected with a bacteria that can live in the blood, and therefore can be passed onto someone else. Carry a card in your wallet indicating that you have Lyme Disease (and co-infections if applicable) and the drugs that you are taking.  This is important to alert health professionals in the case of an accident. If you have having elective surgery, let your surgeon(s) know so that they can be aware.  If you need blood, I would suggest auto-...

Resources for Lyme Disease and Chronic Illness

When dealing with chronic illness, the more information, and support that you have the better. Below, you will find some resources for Lyme disease, chronic illness, and more that may be helpful and provide a lot of additional information. American Association of Naturopathic Physicians Bastyr University Bryan Rosner's Website California Lyme Disease Association Canadian Lyme Disease Foundation Columbia University Lyme Disease Research Center Dr. Jones Kids F...

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is considered the most serious tick-borne illness and is caused by the bacteria, Rickettsia rickettsii.  It can be deadly if not treated with the proper combination of antibiotics and supplements. It was identified in the Rocky Mountains in the 1800s but is also found in Western Canada and parts of Central and South America. It is primarily carried by the American dog tick, Rocky Mountain wood tick, and the brown dog ticks. Symptoms of Rocky Mountain ...

Sleep and Insomnia

Sleep is critical for healing, particularly deep sleep. During sleep, the body alternates between REM sleep and non-REM sleep.  During REM or deep sleep, you dream, and dreaming is thought to be the way that the mind processes information. During sleep, most of the body's systems are in an anabolic state, helping to restore the immune, nervous, muscular, and skeletal systems.  Sleep is also the time that the brain detoxes through its glymphatic system. Insomnia is a common sympto...

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth

Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterized by nausea, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, motility issues, and malabsorption of food. It is very commonly observed in patients with tick-borne illness, whose gut microbiome is extremely out of balance and diseased. This should come as no surprise since Borrelia species have a particular affinity for the brain (fats) and the gut (second brain). Patients with SIBO will often test positive on a hydrogen b...

Systemic Inflammation and Cytokines

Historically, the defining features of inflammation include rubor (redness), calor (warmth), tumor (swelling), and dolor (pain), and there is a distinction between acute and chronic inflammation.  Acute inflammation compromises the early response to an injurious agent and is a defensive response that fosters repair of the damaged site.  Chronic inflammation results from stimuli that are persistently damaging to tissues.  Inflammation is a way that the body reacts to infect...

The Bacterial Biofilm

The Bacterial Biofilm is a sticky, viscous negatively charged substance similar to “bacterial slime”, composed of mucopolysaccharides and DNA, and stabilized by minerals and probably heavy metal molecules.  Plaque found on teeth surfaces is an example of a biofilm.  Biofilm adheres to aqueous environmental surfaces like vascular endothelium and proliferates.  Most types of bacteria secrete some form of this substance which allows them to dwell in the vasculature and extracellul...

The Importance of Probiotics

The importance of probiotics while undergoing Lyme Disease treatment cannot be under estimated. The human microbiome is composed of trillions of different bacteria that live harmoniously and perform various necessary physiological functions, especially in the intestines. These bacteria have specific nutritional needs just as we do to sustain life. Additionally, endigenous bacteria generally do not cause disease, unless the bio-terrain is altered by other infectious organisms, antibiotics, or ...

The Importance of Probiotics

The importance of probiotics while undergoing Lyme Disease treatment cannot be underestimated. The human microbiome is composed of trillions of different bacteria that live harmoniously and perform various necessary physiological functions, especially in the intestines. These bacteria have specific nutritional needs just as we do to sustain life. Additionally, endigenous bacteria generally do not cause disease, unless the bio-terrain is altered by other infectious organisms, antibiotics, or p...

Tick Removal

Instructions for Tick Removal. Any tick that is attached to the skin should be removed carefully and quickly using the following guidelines: Using small tweezers, grasp the head of the tick at the skin and hold firmly without squishing it, and pull STRAIGHT OUT without twisting or turning it.  There may be some resistance as ticks secrete a cement-like substance that allows them a tight hold on the skin site of attachment. Place the tick in a small jar and save it to send to Igenex,...

Tick-borne Relapsing Fever

Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a spirochetal infection caused by Borrelia hermseii, Borrelia miyamotoi, and several other less well-known bacterial species. Tick-borne relapsing fever is found in Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Asia, Canada, and the western United States. Rodents are the primary reservoir and ticks are the likely vector for this disease. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever is best diagnosed by PCR testing.Symptoms of TBRF include: Fever Malaise Cognitive Dysfunction Fatigue ...

Vector-borne Bacterial Infections

Vector-borne bacterial infections such as Lyme disease can be a serious infection caused by Borrelia species, also known as a spirochete, which is transmitted via a tick bite (perhaps also flea and mosquito bites). Many strains of Borrelia exist, and some do not cause disease. Nonetheless, there are likely greater than 100 strains of pathogenic Borrelia and probably more as yet unidentified. Certainly, geographic strain differences exist, especially with regard to continents, a...